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Bees


Encouraging Bees in your Garden.



Commercially bees play a key role in pollinating many crops and are estimated to be worth millions of pounds to the UK economy. Some 35 per cent of our diet depends on pollination of crops by bees and it is often said that if bees died out, humans would follow just four years later, a view sometimes attributed to Albert Einstein. Bees also play a key role in our gardens, particularly in the vegetable plot, and in pollinating flowers which would be unable to produce seed without pollination.

There are two main types of bee; the Bumblebee and the Honeybee. Populations of both have suffered huge declines in recent years for a number of different reasons so it is worth knowing the difference.


Bumblebee
Honeybee


Bumblebees

There are 24 species of Bumblebee living wild in the UK. They are easily recognised by their characteristic fluffy bodies. Different species of Bumblebee have different length tongues because they feed from different shaped flowers. Our wild Bumblebees have suffered declines due to bad weather, the use of insecticides and a reduction in wildflower rich grassland for feeding and nesting.


Honeybees

There is only 1 species of Honeybee in Europe and these bees live in hives that are cultivated and tended by beekeepers in order to produce honey. Britain's cultivated honeybee population has been largely affected by the varroa mite, which has spread rapidly through bee hives since arriving in Britain in 1992. Honeybees are slimmer and smaller than Bumblebees, having a closer appearance to a wasp. They all have short tongues which are best suited to feeding from open flower shapes.


Encouraging Bumblebees in the garden.

Although Honeybees are often found in gardens, it is our wild Bumblebees that are of greatest interest to the gardener. Given that collectively gardens equate to over a million acres in the UK, there is much that we can do as gardeners to help save Bumblebees from decline. If every garden contained a bee house and a range of bee friendly flowers, trees and shrubs then this would significantly increase both food and shelter for our native bumblebees, and help to reverse their decline.

If you are encouraging bees into your garden then it is important to avoid using insecticides as these will kill helpful pollinating insects (including bees) as well as the target insects.


How to make a bee house.

Remember that different species require different habitats. Mason Bees enjoy nesting holes in wood or thick stems. You can make your own simple bee house or you can buy a commercially made bee house. Use hollow bamboo canes, dried Japanese knotweed stems or even thick bramble stems. Fix bee boxes in a south-facing spot but not in direct sunlight. Also make sure the entrance points downwards so that rain does not get in.

Many other species of bumblebee will prefer a wood pile in your garden. Simply create a pile of logs, stems and branches and leave it be - the more untidy, the better! Other species will enjoy a grassy bank to nest it - let the grass grow tall and plant pollen rich plants along the edge of the bank.


Planting flowers for bees.

It’s best to aim for a good variety of pollen rich flowers that have different flower shapes and a range of flowering periods from early spring to late summer. Try to ensure at least two different plant species in flower at any time throughout this period to prevent your bees from going hungry. Most double flower forms are lacking in pollen or nectar and likely to be inaccessible to bees so these are best avoided.

We’ve put together a list of bee friendly varieties for you to grow, to help feed the bees in your garden. If you wanted to choose just one or two varieties to grow to help the bees, we suggest any variety of Scabiosa or a wild flower would be ideal.


Bee-friendly Flowers


Genus Species Cultivar Common name
Agastacheanisata  
AgastachefoeniculumGolden Jubilee 
AlcearoseaHalo WhiteHollyhock
Allium   
Alliumschoenoprasum Chives
Anemonejaponica  
Antirrhinummajus Bronze Dragon 
AntirrhinumnanumFrosted Flame 
Aquilegiacaerulea  
AsterComposition  
Boragoofficinalis Borage
BuddlejadavidiiMixed 
Calendulaofficinalis English marigold
Campanula   
Centaureadealbata Cornflower
Centaureacyanus Cornflower
CosmosbipinnatusSonata Series MixedCosmos
CosmossulphureusLadybird LemonCosmos
Cynaracardunculus  
DelphiniumhybridiumDelphinium 
Digitalis  Foxglove
Dipsacussylvestris Teasel
Echinopsruthenicus Globe Thistle
EchiumpinnanaViper's Bugloss 
EchiumvulgareBlue Bedder 
Eryngium  Sea Holly
EupatoriummaculatumAtropurpureumJoe Pye weed
Geranium pratense Meadow Cranesbill
Heilanthusannuus Sunflower
Hypericumperforatum St John's Wort
HyssopusofficinalisTricolour MixedHyssop
KnautiamacedonicaMelton PastelsKnautia
Lathyrusodoratus Sweet Pea
LavandulaaugustifoliaHidcoteLavender
Lavandulastoechas Lavender
Limnanthesdouglasii Poached Egg plants
LunariaannuaHonesty 
Lupinus  Lupin
Melissaofficinalis Lemon Balm
Mentha  Mint
MonardaastromontanaBee's FavouriteBergamot
MonardadidymaSuperb MixedBergamot
Nasturtiummajus  
Nepetacataria Cat Mint
Origanummajorana Sweet Marjoram
Papaverbracteatum Perennial Poppy
PapaverrhoeasFlandersField Poppy
PapaverorientaleBrilliantOriental Poppy
Penstemon   
Phaceliaviscida Scorpion Weed
PolemoniumborealeHeavenly HabitJacob's Ladder
Potentillathurberi amorubensMonarch's VelvetCinquefoil
Rosmarinusofficinalis Rosemary
Salviaofficinalis Sage
Salviatransylvanica Salvia
ScabiosacaucasicaHouse's Novelty MixedScabious
Scabiosaatropurpurea Scabious
Symphytumofficinale Comfrey
ThymusvulgarisOld EnglishThyme
Trifoliumrubens  
Verbenabonariensis Verbena

Bee-friendly Fruit and Vegetable Varieties


Genus Species Cultivar Common name
ChaenomelesVranja Quince
Cynara  Globe Artichoke
Malus Red SentinelCrab Apple
Malus Cox's Orange PippinApple
Phaseolus DesireeRunner Bean
Prunus RobijnAlmond
Prunus SunburstCherry
Prunus VictoriaPlum
Pyrus ConferencePear
Rubus Loch NessBlackberry
Ribes InvictaGooseberry
Rubus  Raspberry
Rubus  Loganberry
Vicia Masterpiece GreenBroad Bean